In North and West Texas, start seeds a few weeks earlier. Download a printer-friendly version of this page: Artichokes, View this publication in Spanish: Cómo cultivar alcachofas. Artichokes are deep-rooted and require adequate moisture when growing and producing fruit. Work it into the soil before planting, and apply an additional 0.3 pound per 100 square feet 6 to 8 weeks later. Globe artichoke produces best in deep, fertile, well-drained soil, but will grow in a wide range of soils. Click for a hub of Extension resources related to the current COVID-19 situation. Use a sharp knife to cut off the artichoke, leaving around 3 inches (7.6 cm) of the stem. The plant will send out shoots in the fall. In Central Texas, artichoke is transplanted in mid October, which means seeds must be started in mid-August. Large, fully developed artichoke plants compete well with weeds. Starting Artichoke. Old stems should be removed as soon as all buds have been harvested to allow new stems to grow. Plan before fall planting because it can take up to 60 days before plants are of suitable size for planting outside. Artichokes can be planted from seed, though it is usually easier to buy established plants or rootstock from your local nursery. A hot, dry climate causes artichoke buds to open quickly and destroys the tenderness of the edible parts. Eaten by the ancient Greeks and Romans, this member of the thistle family has been cultivated as a gourmet food for centuries. The baby plant should sit at the … Apply about 0.25 pound of P205 and 0.25 pound of K2O per 100 square feet. Make sure you leave only the most vigorous shoot on the old plant for production next spring. Wait for more buds. Plant the seeds ¼ inch deep in potting mix when the temperature doesn’t exceed 85 degrees F. Water seeds regularly and shade them from the hot afternoon sun. The ideal climate for the perennial flowering plant is in zones 10 to 11. Select buds for their size, compactness and age. SE Region Row Crop Initiative Grain and Cotton Marketing Update: Online Zoom, If there is a threat of frost, cover plants with a 6-inch layer of straw mulch, leaves, a bucket or frost blanket, or some other form of frost protection. Emerald, Grand Beurre, Talpiot and Purple Sicilian are all grown from seed. The Purple Sicilian variety is fairly tolerant of heat and cold. A healthy plant should produce six to nine buds per plant. All buds of suitable size should be harvested by cutting the stem 2 to 3 inches below the base of the bud. But the artichoke, scientifically known as Cynara scolymus, proves that not all thistles are a nuisance. Black tip is most common when conditions are sunny, warm and windy. Transplants grow slowly in the fall and winter (October through January), but in early spring artichoke plants will rapidly increase in size. Mulching artichokes will reduce weeds and conserve soil moisture. Although artichokes are moderately salt tolerant, soil with a high salt content will reduce their growth and yield. Curly dwarf virus and bacterial crown rot are other artichoke diseases. Artichoke is both a nutritious vegetable and a beautiful landscape plant. Ask your county Extension agent for more information on preparing and serving artichoke. Several varieties work well for Texas gardeners, including: Emerald is about 2 weeks earlier than Imperial Star and appears to need little, if any, vernalization (chilling). It is important to remove weeds when artichokes are small because the plants are most susceptible to weed competition at this stage. Artichoke should be planted in a well-drained soil and mulched well to help reduce weeds and conserve soil moisture. Artichokes are susceptible to root rot, so do not let the soil become too wet. We have found it easiest to plant 3-4 seeds in a plastic pot, then thin to one plant after germination. Our work makes a difference, in the lives of Texans and on the economy. Leave plenty of space between plants to reduce the chance of diseases becoming a problem. If manure is available, mix 100 to 140 pounds of composted manure per 100 square feet into the soil before planting. Artichokes require about 0.1 pound of nitrogen (N) per 100 square feet. Do not expose artichokes to temperatures below 25 degrees F in the winter. Transplants grow slowly in the fall and winter (October through January), but in early spring artichoke plants will rapidly increase in size. Artichoke should be planted in a well-drained soil and mulched well to help reduce weeds and conserve soil moisture. In the summer, irrigation will help keep temperatures down in the crop canopy to prevent bud opening. Plan to harvest another crop … The plant’s deep roots need relatively deep soils with adequate volume for root development. Some folks may be able to overwinter artichokes down to zone 8. The main harvest usually occurs in April and May. Artichokes grow well when fertilized regularly. Plant artichokes 4 feet apart in an area with full sun to partial shade and nutrient-rich, loamy soil. This will put the plant crown into a dormant stage during the summer. In warm areas, this plant can provide for multiple years. Put the plant in the pot having the soil. Foliar applications of a liquid fertilizer containing calcium and zinc are recommended every 2 weeks during active growth in early spring. Rinse leaves and cut off the sharp tips, about ¼ inch, before cooking. Transplant seedlings 2½ to 3 feet apart in rows 3 to 4 feet apart. Put freshly cut buds in the fridge until you’re ready to cook them. Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostics Laboratory, Texas A&M College of Agrculture and Life Sciences, Imperial Star (less vigorous than Green Globe). You can start this plant from seed indoors. The edible parts include the flesh of the base of the leaves and the heart of the flower. Phosphorus and potash are best applied before planting and should also be worked in. If a soil test is not done, follow these general recommendations: Transplant seedlings 2½ to 3 feet apart in rows 3 to 4 feet apart. The new shoots can be dug out to be replanted into a new location in the garden or left in place to produce another year. Moisture stress may result in black tip, which is only cosmetic damage because the edible portion of the bud is not affected. For the more willing, it’s best to start them indoors 8 weeks before the last frost. Plants can reach 3 feet in height and width, and the flower, if allowed to bloom, can be 7 inches in diameter. Grow as an annual in zone 7, though some people have even had success in zones 5 and 6. It is best to have your soil tested and amend the soil according to the test results and recommendations. Sandy soils with excessive drainage should be avoided. Growing Artichokes In Pots. Artichoke is a great source of fiber and can be steamed, boiled or microwaved. Many people think of thistles as prickly weeds, and no gardener wants a weed in their vegetable garden. If you have trouble with diseases, ask your county Extension agent about disease control. Seeds can easily be started in a greenhouse, in a shady spot outside in late summer, or indoors under a grow light. Powdery mildew, Verticillium wilt, and botrytis rot are common during rainy weather. Quick Guide to Growing Artichokes If artichokes are perennial to your region, think long term about where to plant them because they’ll grow in that spot for up to 5 years. Do you have a question -or- need to contact an expert? Artichoke is a perennial plant so once the harvest is done in June, cut the plant back to soil level. The artichoke, a member of the thistle family, has been cultivated and enjoyed since the time of the Romans.