Increased levels can occur due to corrosion in old cast iron water mains sediment. %PDF-1.3 %���� For instance, when the level of iron in water exceeds the 0.3 mg/l limit, we experience red, brown, or yellow stain- It is also found in drinking water. Public water systems only need to test for them on a voluntary basis. k�DZq��9Z4�o��|6pb�+(�n#�pm� �{�y����)T@�Y�,����t�l��u�߮Jخp����I�� g&9����&NaY|t����o�N3(w�+?�a�PY�l ��'d"�[��|�e�7D��%�$d*1��R�^. In drinking-water supplies, iron(II) salts are unstable and are precipitated as insoluble iron(III) Making up at least 5 percent of the earth’s crust, iron is one of the earth’s most plentiful resources. Normally there’s no health risk associated with higher levels of iron except in the case of some specific medical conditions. Iron can be a troublesome chemical in water supplies. Iron is one of the most abundant elements on earth. Iron is present in all wastewaters. It is an essential element for humans, and it is used in a variety of industrial processes. �J�k��×O��%|X���l�ky�s�S����f�?�3�׮?ȃn�|��v�Hi��"3\yظc�BwLz�c�Y���E�~���;ԥ*���Ǻk�B�'�ƽ�[�G?����ըƎ7[�nW���"��)�L䕥6�q�\T���"�z��{��tD��m���Ώ. Iron In Drinking Water. In well-water, iron concentrations below 0.3 mg/litre were characterized as unnoticeable, whereas levels of 0.3–3 mg/litre were found acceptable (E. Dahi, personal communication, 1991). H����N�0����0�+5�!>DB�����[��EIR(�R�V������i�E4��=�{R> � S='��le`��1��N� ��e�%^@�t10T'@� 0 �ʗ: endstream endobj 987 0 obj 383 endobj 956 0 obj << /Type /Page /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Parent 952 0 R /BleedBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /TrimBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /ArtBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /StructParents 0 /Contents 958 0 R /Resources << /ExtGState << /R1 974 0 R /R2 975 0 R /R3 976 0 R /R4 977 0 R /R5 978 0 R /R6 979 0 R /R7 980 0 R /R8 981 0 R >> /XObject << /Im1 983 0 R /Im2 985 0 R >> /Font << /F1 959 0 R /F2 962 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /CS1 957 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB ] >> /Thumb 941 0 R /Rotate 0 >> endobj 957 0 obj [ /Separation /All /DeviceCMYK << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [ 0 1 ] /C0 [ 0 0 0 0 ] /C1 [ 0 0 0 1 ] /N 1 >> ] endobj 958 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 961 0 R >> stream Iron makes up five percent of the earth’s crust and in dissolved form occurs in most ground water. It finds its way into well water naturally or as a result of problems with the well construction or pipe system. Water Hardness Scale Chart. 954 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 956 /H [ 1113 506 ] /L 228539 /E 27380 /N 4 /T 209340 >> endobj xref 954 34 0000000016 00000 n 0000001031 00000 n 0000001619 00000 n 0000002143 00000 n 0000002271 00000 n 0000003195 00000 n 0000003360 00000 n 0000004641 00000 n 0000004663 00000 n 0000004832 00000 n 0000006113 00000 n 0000007429 00000 n 0000007452 00000 n 0000007683 00000 n 0000007706 00000 n 0000009274 00000 n 0000009297 00000 n 0000009320 00000 n 0000010700 00000 n 0000014789 00000 n 0000015022 00000 n 0000015084 00000 n 0000015145 00000 n 0000015207 00000 n 0000015268 00000 n 0000015329 00000 n 0000015391 00000 n 0000015452 00000 n 0000015513 00000 n 0000015536 00000 n 0000023673 00000 n 0000023696 00000 n 0000001113 00000 n 0000001597 00000 n trailer << /Size 988 /Info 953 0 R /Root 955 0 R /Prev 209329 /ID[<81bf7a261ea8d2cecddf1a8688e98b62><81bf7a261ea8d2cecddf1a8688e98b62>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 955 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 952 0 R /StructTreeRoot 547 0 R >> endobj 986 0 obj << /S 235 /T 385 /C 432 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 987 0 R >> stream 1 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 27 0 R /Resources 2 0 R /Contents 3 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 2 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /TT2 35 0 R /TT4 39 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 43 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 34 0 R >> >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Length 3665 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream • In ground water, organic carbon is usually the donor in redox reactions, with organic carbon oxidized. Adjacent Wells Can Have Different Manganese Levels: Local Redox Conditions Influence Iron and Manganese Concentrations • Redox conditions are controlled by transfer of electrons between donors and acceptors (TEAPS). UNDERSTANDING YOUR IRON LEVELS 0-100 ng/mL4,6,12 100+ ng/mL4,6,10,12 0-30 ng/mL4,6 30-50 7 50-300 4,6,8 300+ 9,10 Transferrin saturation (TSAT): is a measure of the circulating form of iron. Because low levels of fluoride are common in groundwater, most municipalities add fluoride to the water. H�b``P```�d�``�� �� l�,�r��p&^_}��&���5���>s����ߔZ8%�8�M����)�~6ڲ⋄���|�3R_N�����wVW2�D�A�:VOs���|�ϭOΡ{��v�3�#x���-v��D�����0���;wnݸ��z��[�~.�q���ƍ�W!`�U� & s:�O&�@W����b����y8>�60���(`p\� �