Cologne became acknowledged, as a city by the Romans in AD 50, by the name of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium. Mountains are very useful. With its outstanding architectural monuments, the slopes full of vines, settlements crowded on the narrow river banks and scores of castles lined up along the top of the steep slopes, the Middle Rhine Valley can be considered the epitome of the Rhine romanticism. The rate of erosion equaled the uplift in the region, such that the river was left at about its original level while the surrounding lands raised. The Mainz Basin ends in Bingen am Rhein; the Rhine continues as "Middle Rhine" into the Rhine Gorge in the Rhenish Slate Mountains. By the Pliocene period, the Rhine had captured streams down to the Vosges Mountains, including the Main and the Neckar. Glacial lakes fill the area and forests cover … Augustus ordered his stepson Roman general Drusus to establish 50 military camps along the Rhine, starting the Germanic Wars in 12 BC. The Lower Vosges in the north are dislocated plates of various sandstones, ranging from 300 to 600 m (1,000 to 2,000 ft) high. Early engineering projects the Upper Rhine also had issues, with Tulla's project at one part of the river creating rapids, after the Rhine cut down from erosion to sheer rock. Such was the case during the Last Glacial Maximum, ca. The Posterior Rhine rises in the Rheinwald below the Rheinwaldhorn. Lake Untersee is part of the border between Switzerland and Germany, with Germany on the north bank and Switzerland on the south, except both sides are Swiss in Stein am Rhein, where the High Rhine flows out of the lake. As a meandering river, it reworked its ice-age floodplain. [note 6], The grammatical gender of the Celtic name (as well as of its Greek and Latin adaptation) is masculine, and the name remains masculine in German, Dutch and French. Today, the Upper Rhine area hosts many important manufacturing and service industries, particularly in the centers Basel, Strasbourg and Mannheim-Ludwigshafen. At several points on the main ridge, especially at Sainte Odile above Ribeauvillé (German: Rappoltsweiler), are the remains of a wall of unmortared stone with tenons of wood, about 1.8 to 2.2 m (6 to 7 ft) thick and 1.3 to 1.7 m (4 to 6 ft) high, called the Mur Païen (Pagan Wall). The Rhine: an eco-biography, 1815–2000. [note 1]. The watershed of the Rhine reaches into the Alps today, but it did not start out that way. Other rivers in the Ruhr Area, above all, the Emscher, still carry a considerable degree of pollution. The temperature is much lower in the west front of the mountains than in the low plains behind the massif, especially in summer. Since that time, the Rhine has added the watershed above Lake Constance (Vorderrhein, Hinterrhein, Alpenrhein; captured from the Rhône), the upper reaches of the Main, beyond Schweinfurt and the Moselle in the Vosges Mountains, captured during the Saale Ice-age from the Meuse, to its watershed. On the various parts: Order: panning north to south through the Western Netherlands: This article is about the river. Of ancient rocks, the dome-shaped mountains rise to their greatest heights north of Belfort Gap and then spread westward for more than 40 miles (64 km) toward the Moselle Valley and northward for more than 70 miles (114 km) parallel to the Rhine. It rises from the Belfort depression (Trott de Belfort), which sepa rates it from the Jura Mountains, and extends in a north-northeast direction on the west side of the Rhine Valley, parallel with the Schwarz wald (Map: Germany, 13 4). The Rhine: an eco-biography, 1815–2000. The Seerhein emerged in the last thousands of years, when erosion caused the lake level to be lowered by about 10 metres. The Grand Ballon is the highest peak at 1,424 m (4,672 ft), followed by the Storkenkopf (1,366 m, 4,482 ft), and the Hohneck (1,364 m, 4,475 ft).[5]. Geographically, the Vosges Mountains are wholly in France, far above the Col de Saverne separating them from the Palatinate Forest in Germany. It is a rift or graben, from the Oligocene epoch, associated with its horsts: the Vosges and the Black Forest. This view is typified by Res Gestae Divi Augusti, a long public inscription of Augustus, in which he boasts of his exploits; including, sending an expeditionary fleet north of the Rheinmouth, to Old Saxony and Jutland, which he claimed no Roman had ever done before. The river now flows north as Upper Rhine through the Upper Rhine Plain, which is about 300 km long and up to 40 km wide. The High Rhine begins in Stein am Rhein at the western end of the Untersee. By contrast, those parts of the northern Vosges and the whole of the Wasgau, which lie north of the Breusch valley, fall within the Germanic-speaking area because, from Schirmeck the historical linguistic boundary turns to the northwest and runs between Donon and Mutzigfelsen heading for Sarrebourg (Saarburg). 54, Cioc, Mark. "La guerre aérienne dans les Vosges. Currently Rhine water runs into the sea, or into former marine bays now separated from the sea, in five places, namely at the mouths of the Nieuwe Merwede, Nieuwe Waterway (Nieuwe Maas), Dordtse Kil, Spui and IJssel. Almost the entire length of the Middle Rhine runs in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Seattle: University of Washington Press. The flow of cold, grey mountain water continues for some distance into the lake. It includes the Austrian towns of Gaißau, Höchst and Fußach. The last glacial ran from ~74,000 (BP = Before Present), until the end of the Pleistocene (~11,600 BP). The Rhine (Latin: Rhenus [ˈr̥e̞ːnus], Romansh: Rein, German: Rhein [ʁaɪ̯n], French: Rhin,[1] Italian: Reno, Dutch: Rijn, Alemannic German: Rhi(n) including Alsatian/Low Alemannic German, Ripuarian, Low Franconian: Rhing) is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in a mostly northerly direction through Germany and the Netherlands, emptying into the North Sea. On the eastern slope economic vineyards reach to a height of 400 m (1,300 ft); on the other hand, in the mountains, it is a land of pasture and forest. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe (after the Danube), at about 1,230 km (760 mi),[note 1][note 2] with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s (100,000 cu ft/s). Imperial Territory of the German Empire: 1871–1918: Flag. There are related clues (shown below). We have given Region and former province of France between the Vosges mountains and the Rhine a popularity rating of 'Very Rare' because it has not been seen in many crossword publications and is therefore high in originality. When such basins form, the thinning of the crust causes uplift immediately adjacent to the basin. The shape of the Rhine delta is determined by two bifurcations: first, at Millingen aan de Rijn, the Rhine splits into Waal and Pannerdens Kanaal, which changes its name to Nederrijn at Angeren, and second near Arnhem, the IJssel branches off from the Nederrijn. This "Germanic Heroic Age" is reflected in medieval legend, such as the Nibelungenlied which tells of the hero Siegfried killing a dragon on the Drachenfels (Siebengebirge) ("dragons rock"), near Bonn at the Rhine and of the Burgundians and their court at Worms, at the Rhine and Kriemhild's golden treasure, which was thrown into the Rhine by Hagen.