However if we observe the way scientists actually do research, it becomes clear. In fact one school of thought represented by Gunnar Myrdal states that total objectivity is an illusion which can never be achieved. Science can be grouped into two broad categories: natural science and social science. Meanings arise from the process of interaction rather than being simply present at the outset. (e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism. Systematization, i.e., attempting to find all the relevant data, or collecting data in a systematic and organized way so that the conclusions drawn are reliable. Even Durkheim regarded Sociology to be a positive science. Various methods of data collection research should be used and the result obtained from one should be cross-checked with those from the other. Thus an attempt to understand social behavior should not stop simply at observation from without instead it should involve interpretation of the underlying meanings and motives. According to Weber social reality is characterized by the presence of geist or consciousness. The account of information which interpretative sociologists require to substantiate their analysis is quite different from the information needed by positivistic sociologists. Theory is confused with speculation and theory remains speculation until it is proved. The popular understanding of this relationship obscures more than it illuminates. Facts are thought to be definite, certain, without question and their meaning to be self-evident. In terms of these meanings and motives he then tries to rationally explain the actor’s behavior. SCIENCE, SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND CRITIQUE Science - What, When, Who, Why What Systematic body of Knowledge which is Certified AUTHENTIC/PROVED INFORMATION Changing KNOWLEDGE IS NOT FINAL BUT DYNAMIC ORGANISED MANNER WHERE PARTS ARE INTERRELATED AND NOT SCATTERED Science Organised body of knowledge Where Facts are related Scientific theories Based on Reflexive reasoning Scientific … (iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:(a) Evolution of the modern industry in India(b) Growth of urban settlements in India. Upendra sir sociology Handwritten Notes PDF Free Download, Sociology Syllabus for UPSC Main Examination, [PDF] Other Important Study Materials for Sociology, Sociology Class Notes of P.Upendra Sir For IAS Mains In English Medium. ‘Scientific inquiry/investigation presents facts as they are; while a scientist has a moral responsibility of giving findings without any biases and prejudices,   motivation for a scientist in conducting research is curiosity, developing theory and interest in change. (b) Agrarian social structure— the evolution of land tenure system, land reforms. These meanings that guide actions arise in the context of interaction via a series of complex interpretative procedures. (f) Illiteracy and disparities in education. Relevance: Sociology: Sociology as Science: Science, scientific method and critique. The Images, Books & other Contents are copyrighted to their respective owners. Buy Latest Edition of Essential Sociology – For Civil Services Main Examination from Amazon: Download All Banking Preparation Books PDF, Best Books for SSC Exams to Download in PDF, Best Books for UPSC (IAS) Exam to Download in PDF, Best Books for TNPSC Exams to Download in PDF, Best Books for Railway(RRB) Exams to Download in PDF, Essential Sociology – For Civil Services Main Examination. Facts of science are the product of observations that are not random but meaningful, i.e., theoretically relevant. (b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities. For example:  Weber relied on official statistical records and historical documents in his study of ‘The Protestant Ethics and Spirit of Capitalism’ direct observation is also frequently used accompanied by extensive verbatim recording of conversational exchange among the actors involved. (c) Protests and movements during the colonial period. Quantification brings in exactitude and makes precise comparisons possible. (v) Social Movements in Modern India :(a) Peasants and farmers movements(b) Women’s movement. For the purpose of acquiring empirical data and for processing them into law like statements science relies on a ‘method’. The growth of science is seen is seen in new facts and new theory. A theory refers to the relationship between facts or to the ordering of them in some meaningful way. Although scientific research method depends on the collection of empirical facts, yet facts alone do not constitute a science. Subsequently, Radcliffe-Brown, Malinowski and even Parsons continue to view Sociology as a positive science and so did most of the Chicago School sociologists. Apart from studying what it is, they should also be concerned with what ought to be. Morus, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Click the link below to see the details about the UPSC –Civils courses offered by Triumph IAS. Conclusions based on recalled unrecorded data are not trust worthy. Besides personal preferences the ideological biases acquired in the course of education and training has a bearing on the choice of the topic of research. There is yet another set of sociologists -those identified as Ethnomethodologists- who try to analyze the commonsense nature of social interactions. But some scholars like Horton and Bouma, referring particularly to sociological research is of the opinion that the issue whether sociological research has been widely corrupted in this manner (of supporting even oppression) may be debated. In the light of above limitations, it is hard to admit that Sociology can be a positive science. But sociologists must also be concerned with processes by which people come to establish meanings in social phenomena. The assumptions underlying symbolic interactionism are. Science refers to a body of systematically arranged knowledge that shows the operation of general laws. Ghure). Like Freud, Weber never really believed in an enduring peace or in a final resolution of this conflict. Whereas inherent differences exist between the soft and hard sciences, the same fundamental principles of scientific inquiry apply. According to Theodorson and Theodorson, scientific method involves the following steps : Kenneth D. Baily has delineated five stages of social research : Horton and Hunt have pointed out eight steps in scientific research or scientific method of investigation: The important uses of scientific research in Sociology are: It is because of this value of scientific research that today many sociologists are engaged in research-some on full-time basis and some on part-time basis.