Endemic to Inaccessible Island in the Tristan Archipelago in the isolated south Atlantic, it is the smallest extant flightless bird in the world. The island group was discovered in 1506 by a Portuguese admiral, Tristão da Cunha. This outbreak was compounded by Tristan's lack of suitable and sufficient medical supplies. The estimated population of the islands in 2014 was 269, making it the most remote inhabi… The next year 45 of the inhabitants removed to Cape Colony. With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, together with the gradual transition from sailing ships to coal-fired steam ships, the isolation of the islands increased. He named the main island after himself, Ilha de Tristão da Cunha. Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island, 7°56' south of the Equator in the South Atlantic Ocean. Flags Money was introduced the following year, as was the island's first newspaper, The Tristan Times . After the death of Glass, the head of the community for some time was a named Cotton, who had served on a man of war ship, and for three years had been guard over Napoleon at Saint Helena. After his departure, the Bishop of St. Helena attempted to establish an Anglican mission on the island from 1866 onward, and this post was finally filled by Lewis Carroll's youngest brother, the Reverend Edwin Heron Dodgson, who arrived on the island 25 February 1881. A number of structures were severely damaged and a large number of cattle were killed, prompting emergency aid from the British government. In 1885 the islanders encountered disaster. In October 1873 the islands were carefully surveyed by the Challenger. Tristan da Cunha is located about halfway between Cape Town , South Africa and Buenos Aires , Argentina. The island was temporarily evacuated following a volcanic eruption in 1961, but now is a thriving modern community. The community on Tristan da Cunha had no resident doctor for the first 125 years of its existence. A Growing Community 1817 - 1853 . On 23 May 2001, the islands experienced an extratropical cyclone that generated winds up to 193 kilometres per hour (120 mph). The population in 1897 was only 64; in 1901 it was 74, and in 1909, 95. Later, African women from Cape Colony married residents in the island. War having broken out in 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom, the islands were largely used as a base by American cruisers sent to prey on British merchant ships. It is the smallest of the Nightingale Islands, and is to the north west of Nightingale Island itself. This was supported by a LSDA vessel Lyme Bay from the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. The first known attempt to climb Queen Mary's Peak was in 1793 by the French naturalist Louis-Marie Aubert du Petit-Thouars, but this was without success. J. G. Barrow and his wife Katherine (1906–1909), Rev. They were the only ones to have attempted colonization of any island except the main one. A British naval officer who visited the group in 1760 gave his name to Nightingale Island. The concrete topping put in place has subsequently been badly damaged and on-going repairs will be required to keep the harbour from breaking apart in winter storms. The Quincentenary of this event was celebrated by a series of events in 2006. Isolation & Hardship 1853 - 1942 . To a modern geologist, the tell-tale signs were there for all to see on the island of Tristan da Cunha . In 1867, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and second son of Queen Victoria, visited the islands. They consist of Nightingale Island, Middle Island and Stoltenhoff Island. They were daring sailors, and in small canvas boats of their own building voyage to Nightingale and Inaccessible islands. Trace their arrivals in the history section links above or below. Since then other younger or more restless members of the community have emigrated there; some took to a seafaring life. In 2005, the islands were given a United Kingdom post code (TDCU 1ZZ) to make it easier for the residents to order goods online. Captain George Nares recorded that upon the ship's arrival, the men of Tristan came forward offering potatoes, albatross eggs, and other provisions to his crew. Including Tristao da Cunha, American Interlude and British Garrison . A small garrison was maintained on Tristan until November 1817. . The Tristan da Cunha Islands were discovered and the main island named by the Portuguese admiral Admiral Tristao da Cunha en route to the Cape of Good Hope in 1506. As of 2003 [update] , there have been no divorces. The seven modern flags were not all as they were in the years when the settlers arrived - but can you name them all without looking them up? Tristan was ignored by early explorers as a possible home due to its rugged mountain landscape, absence of natural harbour, lack of land for agriculture, and a harsh climate with heavy rain and high winds at all seasons. Saint Helena, Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha as well the other uninhabited islands nearby are a haven for wildlife in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.  The Captain recorded a total of 15 families and 86 individuals living on the island. Royal Engineers from the British Army worked on the harbour to help maintain it, as everything comes and goes by sea. The islands have been identified by BirdLife International as Important Bird Areas for both their endemic landbirds and breeding seabirds. In 1958 as part of an experiment, Operation Argus, the United States Navy detonated an atomic bomb 160 kilometres (100 mi) high in the upper atmosphere  about 175 kilometres (109 mi) southeast of the main island. The second Duke of Edinburgh, the husband of Queen Elizabeth II, visited the islands in 1957 as part of a world tour on board the royal yacht Britannia. Most ships went through the canal for a shorter route. He named the main island after himself, Ilha de Tristão da Cunha, which was later anglicised to Tristan da Cunha Island. Further Background to the History of Tristan da Cunha Tristan da Cunha was discovered in 1506 by the Portuguese navigator, Tristầo da Cunha. The 1961 eruption of Queen Mary's Peak forced the evacuation of the entire population  via Cape Town to wooden huts in the disused Pendell Army Camp in Merstham, Surrey, England, before moving to a more permanent site at a former Royal Air Force station in Calshot near Southampton, England, living mainly in a road called Tristan Close. The Settlers Glass ruled over the little community from 1817 to 1853 in patriarchal fashion. The main settlement, Edinburgh of the Seven Seas, was named in honour of his visit. It is named after Mary of Teck, the Queen consort of King George V. It is the highest point of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. Soundings were taken and a rough survey of the coastline was made. Trace their arrivals in the history section links above or below. Here a number of substantial stone cottages and a church were built. [ citation needed ] Lambert's sovereignty was short lived, as he and Williams were drowned while out fishing in May 1812. On 13 February 2008, fire destroyed the fishing factory and the four generators that supplied power to the island. From time to time additional settlers arrived or shipwrecked mariners decided to remain. The islands are administered by the United Kingdom as part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. William F. Taylor, who served from 1851 to 1856. In 1906 the islanders passed through a period of distress owing to great mortality among the cattle and the almost total failure of the potato crop. Tristan da Cunha's residents managed their own affairs without any written laws. Their most lucrative occupation was seal-fishing. Besides raising crops, the settlers possessed numbers of cattle, sheep and pigs. They had been living on Inaccessible Island since November 1871. Backup generators were used to power the hospital and give power for part of the day to the rest of the island. A successful trading settlement . . The British government planned to remove all the inhabitants to the Cape, but the majority preferred to remain. The territory also includes the sparsely-populated Tristan da Cunha archipelago, some 3,730 kilometres (2,300 mi) to the south, about halfway to the Antarctic Circle. Needless to say, he named the main island after himself. The only currency in use on the island at this time was the potato,[ citation needed ] and islanders labouring to construct the station were paid in kind with naval supplies for their own use, such as wood, paint and tea. Challenger Station 135, Tristan da Cunha", "Royal Gifts Gladden 172 On Lonely Atlantic Island" (Tristan da Cunya),", http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1806-01=, "120 mph storm devastates Tristan da Cunha", "MS Oliva runs aground on Nightingale Island".